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Hertz- is cycle/second. This is the label for frequency. Labeled as Hz or kHz.

Beating- is when two waveforms are sounded simultaneously and they pulse against each other audibly. It’s like when tuning two guitar strings and listening for the pulsing of the strings to hear if a string is sharp or flat.

Phase Cancellation- when two waveforms that are the same are played 180° offset from each other. This results in the waves canceling each other out, resulting in no sound.

Harmonic relationship- If a note’s frequency is multiplied or divided by two, an octave is created. If the frequency is multiplied or divided by three a fifth is created. If a frequency is multiplied or divided by five this creates a major third.

Fundamental- the lowest tone in a sound, the base, the foundation of a sound. The other higher content is called harmonics. See fourier theorem for more information on the subject. These principles are the foundation blocks to how synthesizers are made and work.

Subtractive- An Oscillator goes through the Filter and then the Amplifier. These three things are called Modifiers. An oscillator makes the sound, the filter removes frequencies, the amplifier determines the sound level. Oscillator-Filter-Amplifier

Sine- Simplest waveform, produces a single tone. All sounds can be made by adding sine waves together.

Square- One of the three basic waveforms in a subtractive synth. Produces odd harmonics results in a mellow hollow sound. Good for wind instruments, addiding width to strings and pads, or for deep, wide bass sounds.

Sawtooth- One of the three basic waveforms in a subtractive synth. Produces even and odd harmonics in series and makes a bright sound for brassy raspy sounds. It also great for gritty, bright sounds for leads and basses. It’s a beautiful sound.

Triangle- One of the three basic waveforms in a subtractive synth. Makes only odd harmonics. Mixed with a sine or pulse pad to add a sparkling or bright effect to a sound and is often used on pads to make them brighter.
Pulse- Similar to a square wave but that the width of the highs and lows can be changed. Creates thin reed-like-sounds and also hollow sounds.

Detuning Tips-
When detuning use odd intervals rather than even to prevent the build up of certain harmonic content that is already produced by the oscillator.

Have a slope that attenuates the frequencies. There are sharp and soft slopes. For example a 12dB slope on a pad will seem smooth where a 24 dB slope will sound more abrupt.

Low pass- passes the low frequencies

High pass- passes the high frequencies. It removes the fundamental. This is useful for adding high frequencies to a tone with an already present fundamental. Prevents a muddy sound from multiple fundamentals.
Band pass- pass frequencies between a low pass filter and a high pass filter. It basically passes frequencies in the designated area. Can be used to make lo-fi sounds.

Band reject- reject certain frequencies in a given area. Made by adding a low pas and a high pass filter together. This creates a hole in the sound. Can thin out harmonic content to create pitched sounds.

Comb filter- the sample is delayed in time and then fed back into the filter. It can be used to help give a sound a pitched quality.

Resonance- is the hump toward the cutoff point of the filter. A larger resonance makes the filter sound more dramatic. It changes the amount of output that is fed back into the input. Too much resonance can create feedback at the set cutoff point, which will create a very pure sine wave. Good for sub-bases

Saturation- creates basically an overdrive function. It adds more harmonics.

Key follow- changes the filter based on the note of the keyboard. This changes the sound as the notes are played at different parts of the keyboard. This can help prevent extremely shrill sounds or keep them from becoming too muddy.

Voltage Controlled Amplifier (VCA)- Changes what sort of dynamic qualities the sound has. These are types of envelopes.

ADSR- Attack, decay, sustain, release. Attack is how fast a note sounds, decay is the initial decay after the attack, the sustain is how long the note is held after the decay, and the release is how fast the note dies after the sustain.

TADSR- the same as ADSR but with an added element of time at the beginning. It is basically a period of silence before the note sounds.

LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator)- This is a below audible oscillator that produces a tone that changes other parameters of a waveform or a filter. It has many applications.

FM Synthesis- Synthesis where operators are used. They are similar to oscillators but instead of being added together they can act kind of like modifiers.

Granular Synthesis- Uses short segments of sound called grains. The grains are usually short, less than 30ms. They are added together to create complex sounds.